Importance of hemp seeds in the tuberculosis therapy
During the thirties and forties, in the absence of antibiotics, chemotherapeutics and surgical methods, tuberculosis was rather effectively treated with a therapeutic diet, developed by a team of medical doctors in a sanitarium for patients suffering with tuberculosis at Jince.
The concept was based on two assumptions:
1. ln order to fight tuberculosis effectively, nutrition must supply building material for renewal of tissues destroyed by the disease, be it lungs, other organs, or muscles.
2. The whole diet must support effective function of the liver, thus assuring proper assimilation and utilization of nutrients.
In addition to the selection of nutritious and well-balanced dietary components, attention was paid to the preparation of the food; namely assuring that the nutrients would not be denaturalized. coagulated or rancid due to improper storage or cooking methods.
Two components were considered most important and irreplaceable in the whole diet: oat flakes and a specially processed extract of hemp seed.
It was hemp seed, which attracted the author's attention. It is high in protein (33.0%) and its main protein type, edestine, is well known for its wealth of enzymes and unusual amino acid composition. Most valuable is the amino acid arginin, which is considered essential for formation and growth of new tissue. While other sources of plant protein, for instance soybean protein, contain 6.8% of arginin, edestin contains approximately 3 times as much arginin - 19.0%. This property is of great importance in balancing of diets, requiring high level of arginin.
Before nationalization of the Czechoslovakian Pharmaceutical Industry in 1948, an extract of hemp seed, EDEZYME. was available on the market. Today it is produced as a "home remedv" according to a following recipe:
Ground hemp seed is mixed with warm milk (60 to 80 degrees C) and maintained at this temperature for at least half an hour. Keeping the product in a water bath, while constantly mixing, prevents coagulation of edestin on the bottom of the container. Finished product must be pressed and filtered to separate the indigestible and irritating outer layer of seeds from the colloid solution. One dose prepared from 3/8 of a liter of milk and 50 to 80 grams of hemp seed should be consumed by the patient every second day.
Inclusion of EDEZYM, oat flakes and other, more common dietary components, was tested on two groups of children suffering from tuberculosis in both prewar and war periods. Though no other medication was used and food was rather scarce, all children were considered successfully treated or improved at the end of treatment period. Dietary and/or medical properties of hemp seed deserve our full attention.
PLEASE NOTE: The enclosed study from Czechoslovakia in 1954 bears the limitations of what knowledge was available at the time. In the year 2000, The HempNut Health and Cookbook by Richard Rose and Bridgette Mars (www.TheHempNut.com) added this information to the findings of the Czech Study: "Essential Fatty Acids (found in hemp seeds) help restore wasting bodies by improving the damaged immune systems. They also make it easier for the patient to liquify and expel the mucus built up in the lungs."
IMPORTANCE OF HEMP SEEDS IN THE THERAPY OF TUBERCULOSIS BY JOSEF SIREK
Tuberculosis Hospital at Jince: Chairman: MUDr. Josef Sirek
Chair of the working group: Prof. Dr. Jan Kabelik
If we are discussing the use of hemp seed in the therapy of tuberculosis, we don't think about chemotherapy in today's sense of the word, not even the treatment specifically directed against the Koch bacillus and not a treatment oriented towards diseases that cause changes in the lungs. We think of a total conservative treatment with the emphases on its dietetic or therapeutic nutrition. Therapeutic nutrition becomes then a branch of therapy, namely as a part of the overall effort to "treat the whole human being". For this reason we, according to the Soviet example, begin to understand the importance of the treatment through nutrition in therapy, not excluding physiotherapy. These are, however, the beginnings, lacking direction and therefore up to this point, not too fruitful. One should not be, however, surprised. Even in the Soviet Union the whole question of treatment through nutrition is still controversial, and even the most important nutritional work of the Pevzner school has been subjected to a very critical assessment. Although it was primarily M.I. Pevzner and out of other Soviet authors namely L. M. Model who also in conjunction with tuberculosis rightfully stressed the most important elements of the treatment through nutrition. Another Soviet author, O. L. Gordon, in his presumation entitled "Justification of treatment through nutrition in the clinic and prospects for its expansion" said the following: "Treatment through nutrition is a therapeutic method. As a part of complex therapy it has two goals: To satisfy the physiological needs of the sick organism and to actively influence the pathological process. In this aspect the treatment through nutrition differs from the ordinary nutrition of a sick person". F.K. Mensikov coworker of the Clinic for treatment through nutrition, added that during complex therapy of all diseases proper nutrition is a primary need, while a nutrition which does not take into account the status of the patient could have a negative effect. "Particularly, the treatment through nutrition has an important effect in situations where we need to support regeneration of the tissues, namely when we don't have a medication which could actively support such process". (Presented on December 10, 1954, at the occasion of a scientific conference at Palacky University at Olomouc, as a part of the topic "Hemp seed as a treatment").
It would not be correct to talk about "treatment through nutrition" and not expect from it more than just mere nutrition or doubt that it may actively contribute in the sense of treatment. Even today's physiotherapy, though it has at its disposal rather effective means, can't ignore that such means can be used only for particular patients, and even here one can't put all one's eggs into one basket. In this connection we should remember the words of V.L. Ejnis, used in conclusion of his article 'The work of l. P. Pavlov and clinics of tuberculosis':
"Despite the significant successes of chemotherapy, antibiotics and surgical treatment which substantially improved the prospects of physiotherapy, the fundamental basis of the treatment is still systematic care leading to an increase in the overall resistance of the body. It is now also an important task to improve hygenic-dietetic therapy, incorporating the nutrition of the patient, suffering from tuberculosis".
Towards the end of the first world war physiotherapy freed itself from it helpless position and began a successful attack against tuberculosis. Artificial pneumothorax, exairesa frenicu thoracocaustics, thorakoplatics, extrapleural pneumothorax, Streptomycin, chemotherapy, lobotomy, those are some of the stops on this victorious journey. They are also unquestionable, partial successes, each of which went through a period of excessive hopes and to a point, each of them contributed to the fact that we have forgotten at least partly, the concept of the "Whole human". It leads to a certain indifference to the physiological points of view, hygienic-dietetic treatment, which was critiqued by V.L. Ejnis. The hygienic-dietetic treatment was, by some quiet agreement, reserved for cases, where, for various reasons it was impossible or was not indicated to use "active" means of therapy.
ln the mutual competition for the development of new means of 'active" therapy, our small and in every way, poorly equipped sanitarium at Jince, had only minimum opportunity to participate. The role of Cinderella, however, had some advantages. The less we have been in a position to keep pace with the modern physiotherapy, the more we have concentrated on areas, which were ignored by others. In our small sanitarium we have been in a better position than in other, bigger institutes, to concentrate on hygienic-dietetic treatment, formats the medical nutrition. We have done it correctly. And today, with thirty years of experience behind us, we ieel gratified that the Soviet science gradually confirms nearly everything that we have found, be it empirically, by induction or by a series of trials. In perfect function of the liver we have seen a key to the perfect assimilation of nutrients; the first order of the day in our medical nutrition was the following: Exclude or limit to the maximum, food which will burden the liver or in some cases, cause damage to the liver. In nutrition of the patients with tuberculosis put emphasis on components which will protect the liver and enable their smooth function. This way, we actually developed a "liver diet" sooner, more or less coincidentally. We laid the foundation, which became a logical pre-condition of every dietetic effort. The role of the liver for the nutrition of a human, and a sick one in particular, is in its variability so immensely important, that it must be recognized by everyone who would like to maintain the "whole human" in good health, or enable him to recover from whatever sickness.
In keeping with this principle, we have concentrated on excluding or reducing from the nutrition of our patients, less valuable fats, namely rancid or burned, all fried, roasted foods, pork drippings or boiled butter, all meats preserved by salt and canning, all smoked sausages, beef and duck meat, duck eggs and spicy foods. On the other hand, we have emphasized the diet of our patients, a relative surplus of proteins, in the form of light types of meat, dietetically processed, cottage cheese, which was specifically processed to avoid coagulation and denaturalization. sour milk. yogurt, raw egg yolks or only partially boiled to avoid coagulation. Out of fats we recommended only natural fresh butter, fresh cream, olive oil without signs of rancidity, fresh or preserved fruit without any artificial preservatives, imported fruits from the south in fresh or dry form, nuts and almonds. Out of vitamins we recommend plentiful levels of vitamins B1, A and C. We will use potatoes as a side dish but fewer flour based side dishes. boiled vegetables or vegetables steamed with butter, or if possible, raw (carrots). Use few desserts, but of good quality.
With this diet, we have incorporated into the nutrition of our patients, important substances, contained in non-denaturalized fresh fats and proteins and known as liver protecting components (methionine, choline, insitol, unsaturated short chain fatty acids) and amino acids, which are considered metabolically most valuable (methionine, tryptophan. tyrosine. fenylalanine and others). Lastly, we are adding substances, without which the liver can't properly function (thiamin, carotine, ascorbic acid, vitamin F).
This regimen, aimed at liver protection, was combined with a reduction of the daily meals to three, at most four, with 4-5 hours intervals without any food or drink. This also lead to the elimination of over burdening the liver, sometimes blamed on the frequent presentation of food.
These dietetic provisions were practiced in Jince a quarter century ago, and represented at that time, and even now, a courageous deviation from common practice. Similarly, a suggestion of Prof. Arnerling, from Olomouc, requesting that the nutrition of patients, suffering with tuberculosis. must fully respect the function of the liver, was an expiring voice in the desert. Only long-term effort and undying persistence enabled us to keep such reforms alive and viable until the time, when the Soviet science on "medical nutrition' demonstrated their competency.
The value of the tree can be judged by the fruit. The value of the medical nutrition by the nutritional and medical results. If we value individual nutritive components during the systematic nutritional and medical trials using such criteria, we would soon find out the importance of the correct selection of particular proteins as well as their state and preparation. Though meat is the most common source of protein and its importance in nutrition is beyond an argument, in medical nutrition, it's importance is far behind the proteins in milk and eggs. Eggs represent exclusive building material of the bird's embryo, while milk is a primary source of nutrients in quickly growing and well prospering young mammals. I think that we rightfully call these proteins "plastic", as they are the true material from which the body tissues are built. A daily intake of 100-150 grams of specially prepared loose cottage cheese in the state of hydrogel, and two egg yolks mixed together with other components of the diet, will have much more positive effect on the health status of a sick person than their weight or caloric equivalent in the form of meat. We can't however, expect such effects in a cottage cheese which is coagulated, denaturalized, or prepared by quick coagulation of milk which was too acidic and brought to too high temperature. Similarly, the egg yolk must not be coagulated by boiling to a "hard" state or by frying or other inappropriate preparation methods.
With diseases, such as tuberculosis, which in its active stage is characterized by its tendency for destruction of not only the affected organ (lungs), but as well of the whole body (loss of weight, autolysis of muscles and other tissues, we can't value enough such food, which can serve the living organism as building material. As well, we must present this rare material to the patient's organism in a natural colloid state in which the specific dynamic effect will be best preserved.
The importance of this premise will be more obvious if we, in addition to proteins of animal origin, include proteins of vegetable origin.
The main sources of vegetable proteins, suitable for the nutrition of human are seeds, grains and other fruits. Some can be eaten in a raw state, fresh or professionally dried (nuts or figs); in this later case we should not worry about denaturalization. Unfortunately. the majority of people depend for their nutrition on cooked and baked foods, made out of meal. The aleurone layer of the cereal grains, containing dietetically important proteins and rich in vitamin B1 will remain in the mill. The rest is denatualized by baking or boiling in water. It is hard to believe that professionally prepared oat flakes, in a dose of 15-20 grams will affect the distinct restitution of nutritional status and stimulate healing processes. On the other hand, a ten to twenty times higher dose of cereal proteins in denaturalized and coagulated state, will have no effect in this area. There are, however, certain differences between oats and other cereal grains.
In oats, the aleurone layer is preserved. In addition to vitamin B1, oats contain vitamin B2 in larger quantities than other cereal grains. In its protein structure, the gliadin form dominates over glutenin; the fat content is much higher, giving the oat flake a hazelnut flavor and contributing to the elimination of hunger. The content of gluconins, components which lower the blood sugar, has the same effect "per se" as insulin has when applied parenterally. The majority of the strong points of oats are wasted if oat flakes are boiled in water or in soup, or denaturalized by other improper method. What will be left is just a food, rich in calories but without the medical-nutritional effects. Only the milk and careful preparation will keep the proteins of oat grains in colloid and dietetically active state.
From the oat grain there was a direct route to the hemp seed or "semenec". Not perhaps because our forefathers considered hemp seed porridge and soup as "not bad food", but because by its content of edestin and a wealth of enzymes, hemp seed ranks among the best seeds overall.
Chemically, edestin differs substantially from gliadin and other cereal proteins. It is closer to the proteins of nuts and oil seeds and contains a high amount of arginin (up to 19%), which is the amino acid that encourages growth and formation of new tissues. Similarly, as in casein it contains methionine, which is known for its protective function of the liver. As casein, it contains tryptophan (important pro-vitamin pp-niacine), which is missing in cereals and without which it is impossible to achieve a nitrogen balance. It contains nearly all known amino acids, namely the essential ones, without which the growth and well being of the organism is impossible. Without it, food could never be complete and hvpoproteminaemy occurs - an event, singled out the by Soviet author L.M. Model as the root of the disease of tuberculosis. It is impossible in this short presentation to go into greater detail. Let's, however, bear in mind that the amino acids, which are the most important in the medical nutrition - tryptophan, tyrosinc, phenylalaninc - are separated during the digestion of edestin first. Furthermore, the arginin, cystein and alaninc content in edestin is much higher than in other proteins of plant or animal origin. Finally, amino acids, which are in edestin in smaller quantity than in proteins of animal origin, can be easily replaced in medical nutrition by cottage cheese. There are plenty of reasons why hemp seed edestin should be, in addition to cottage cheese, egg yolk and oat gluten, included among the most important components of medical nutrition for patients with tuberculosis.
As we have witnessed in conjunction with the other proteins, it is of great importance, particularly in the case of edestin, to maintain it in colloid state. From this point of view, our product EDEZYM (the name originated from two words: edestin and enzyme), was very suitable. It has been available on the market for a number of years, though was discontinued after the nationalization of the pharmaceutical industry, in 1948. We may use, however, a simple home preparation, assuming that we have a high quality hemp seed, no older than two years, in which all the proteins and enzymes are still fully active (in order to find out we may conduct a germination test). Old recipes, in which our forefathers prepared the hemp seed soup or porridge, are not useful anymore. In the majority of cases, they lead to coagulation and denaturalization of edestin. ln the preparatory stage we have to remove the outside layer of the seed, which in contrast to oats, is indigestible, discourages the intake and is irritating during the digestion. The only remaining solution is to transfer the content of the seed into a colloid solution and remove the indigestible residue by pressing and sifting.
The best method is based on the extraction of ground hemp seeds by hot milk (60-80 degrees C). The content is constantly mixed while it is kept in a water bath (double boiler), which prevents the excessive heating of the bottom of the container. If this is not done properly, edestin starts to coagulate from the bottom. Sometimes it fully coagulates. Milk could be skimmed, but must be fully fresh and without preservatives. Sweet whey may be used as well. We can obtain it by the coagulation of casein with chymosine. Maceration of the hemp seed, at the above mentioned temperature. should last at least half an hour, preferably more. The finished colloid must be aggressively pressed, filtrated, in some cases mildly sweetened and offered to the patient either immediately or kept at a temperature of 60 degrees C in a water bath, until used. This will prevent hydrolics or fermentative breakdown of the active components. One dose, prepared from 3/8 litre of milk and 50-80 grams of hemp seed, should be consumed by the patient every second day on an empty stomach.
Edited by Storm Crow, 11 July 2010 - 02:35 PM.