PEDIATRICS Vol. 100 No. 1 July 1997, pp. 79-83
Mortality Within the First 2 Years in Infants Exposed to Cocaine, Opiate, or Cannabinoid During Gestation
Received Jul 26, 1996; accepted Nov 14, 1996.Enrique M. Ostrea Jr*, Anthony R. Ostrea*, and Pippa M. Simpson From the * Department of Pediatrics, Hutzel Hospital, Children's Hospital of Michigan and Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.
Objective. To determine the mortality rate, during the first 2 years of life, in infants who were exposed to cocaine, opiate, orcannabinoidduring gestation.
Methods. For a period of 11 months, a large group of infants were enrolled and screened at birth for exposure to cocaine, opiate, or cannabinoidby meconium analysis. Death outcome, within the first 2 years after birth, was determined in this group of infants using the death registry of the Michigan Department of Public Health.
Results. A total of 2964 infants was studied. At birth, 44% of the infants tested positive for drugs: 30.5% positive for cocaine, 20.2% for opiate, and 11.4% for cannabinoids. Compared to the drug negative group, a significantly higher percentage (P < .05) of the drug positive infants had lower weight and smaller head circumference and length at birth and a higher percent of their mothers were single, multigravid, multiparous, and had little to no prenatal care. Within the first 2 years of life, 44 infants died: 26 were drug negative (15.7 deaths per 1000 live births) and 18 were drug positive (13.7 deaths per 1000 live births). The mortality rate among cocaine, opiate, or cannabinoid positive infants were 17.7, 18.4, and 8.9 per 1000 live births, respectively. (emphasis mine- Granny) Among infants with birth weight 2500 g, infants who were positive for both cocaine and morphine had a higher mortality rate (odds ratio = 5.9, confidence interval [CI] = 1.4 to 24) than drug negative infants. Eleven infants died from the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS); 58% were positive for drugs, predominantly cocaine. The odds ratio for SIDS among drug positive infants was 1.5 (CI = 0.46 to 5.01) and 1.9 (CI = 0.58 to 6.2) among cocaine positive infants.
Conclusion. We conclude that prenatal drug exposure in infants, although associated with a high perinatal morbidity, is not associated with an overall increase in their mortality rate or incidence of SIDS during the first 2 years of life. However, a significantly higher mortality rate was observed among low birth weight infants (2500 g) who were positive for both cocaine and opiate.
OK, folks, here's the nitty-gritty- deaths per 1,000.
Total deaths -.............. 44
Drug negative deaths- ... 26....... 15.7 deaths per 1000 live births
All drug positive deaths-.. 18....... 13.7 deaths per 1000 live births
Cocaine positive deaths-.. __ .......17.7 deaths per 1000 live births
Opiate positive deaths-..... __ .......18.4 deaths per 1000 live births
Cannabinoid positive deaths-.__..... 8.9 deaths per 1000 live births
The only reason that the "drug baby" group had a lower mortality rate than the "drug free" babies, was the cannabis group! Opiate and cocaine deaths were higher than the "drug free" group- as you would expect. But look at cannabis! Almost a 50% reduction in mortality compared to the "drug free" babies! So, do you think that using cannabis might actually be good for your baby's survival?
Think of the children!
(It's just so cool when you can turn a prohib "war cry" against them! )
Edited by jangel, 23 June 2010 - 07:29 AM.