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GREAT 1955 Cannabis Studies! MRSA, TB and more!

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#1 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:05 PM

According to a recent news article I read, MRSA kills 19,000 Americans every year! It maims and cripples many more. And it has been known since the 1950s that cannabis kills even drug resistant MRSA! It works in a way totally different to standard antibiotics, so MRSA has zero resistance to cannabis. I don't trust the link not to disappear, so I am copying the information here, so it is available to all. The translation is a bit awkward in spots, but what this scientist was doing is fantastic! Get youself ready for a really interesting education from the 1950s! Granny :)


Prof. Jan Kabelik - HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT
Methods and results of the bacteriological experiments

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Methods and results of the bacteriological experiments

By Z. Krejci


1. Preparation of extract for the preliminary microbiological evaluation
It was clear from the beginning of our experimental work that the antibiotic effect of the drug must stand in close relationship with the content of the resin substances contained in the leaves and, particularly, in the shoots of the pistillate plant (fig. 3). The ground drug was extracted by the method devised by Carlson. The different parts of the plant (roots, stems, leaves, shoots and seeds) were extracted at higher temperature, normal room temperature, and even at 1°C, at the ratio of 1:5, with ethylalcohol, ethylether, a physiological solution, 1.5% sulphuric acid, and 1% sodium hydrocarbonate. The extraction was carried out to advantage with organic solutions, particularly with petrolether, benzene and ethylalcohol.
FIGURE 7, Rate of the inhibitory effect of the raw extract from cannabis upon Staphylococcus aureus (modified Oxford method). One drop of the extract has been used for carrying out the test. I - Extract in 70 per cent ethyl alcohol . II - Extract in 96 per cent ethyl alcohol. III - Diethyl ether extract. IV - Control test with 96 per cent ethyl alcohol.

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2. The bacteriologic technique
The extracts prepared in various ways and by using various kinds of solvents were tested for the presence of antibacterially effective substances by the help of the modified Oxford method. On an Agar culture medium contaminated with the examined microbe, a filter paper 10 mm in diameter, saturated with the antibiotic, was applied. The inhibition zone around the butts found present after 24 hours of incubation was used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the substance. In order to ascertain the maintenance of a given set of conditions, particularly the same amount of microbes, most of the tests were carried out in bacteriological culture mediums with inoculated microbes (fig. 7).
The other and more detailed investigations (the rapidity of the effect, the inhibition factors and so on) were carried out routinely in the fluid medium of peptone water or, with the aid of Sauton culture mediums (BK), respectively.
FIGURE 8 Chromatography illustrating the inhibitory effect upon the growth of the staphylococcus around the antibiotically active zone; undimensional ascending paper chromatography. b shows two zones running into each other (cf. details in the text).

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The preliminary experiments concerning the isolation of biologically active substances were performed by the help of the ascending chromatography or the capillary analysis. The antibacterially effective fractions were detected by placing the chromatograms into inoculated culture mediums. The zone which inhibited the growth of the microbes was considered to be biologically active (fig. 8a, :).
An analogous method based on the capillary analysis and used for the isolation of effective substances is illustrated in fig. 9. The terminally situated zone in the ring chromatogram when placed into an Agar medium inoculated by staphylococcus produces a considerable inhibitory effect upon the growth of the above-mentioned micro-organisms. Further work showed that the chlorophyll contained in the plant extract does not produce any direct antibiotic effect.
3. Spectrum of bacteria sensitive to active substances obtained from cannabis
The investigations were carried out with specimens of gram-positive micro-organisms - i.e. Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus - and from the gram-negative series the Escheria coli were used. The extracts produced a remarkable bactericide effect upon Staphylococcus aureus, whilst E. coli showed to be resistant. On the basis of these preliminary findings we have aimed our work in this direction. Proof could be furnished that the cannabis extracts produce a very satisfactory antibacterial effect upon the following microbes: Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, Streptococcus alpha haemolyticus, Streptococcus beta haemolyticus, Enterococcus, Diplococcus pneumoniae, B. subtilis, B. anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium cutis - i.e., all of them gram-positive micro-organism. Note-worthy is the effect upon Staphylococcus aureus strains, which are resistant to penicillin and to other antibiotics (fig. 10).
That was one of the peculiar properties of cannabis which was found to be most attractive. We saw the possibility of utilizing the antibiotic locally without any danger of producing resistant strains to other antibiotics administered at the same time throughout treatment. We must also remember the very good effect of substances from cannabis upon Staphylococcus aureus, particularly nowadays, when a high percentage of staphylococcus diseases offers resistance to penicillin. It is interesting that staphylococci manifesting various degrees of resistance to one or more antibiotics (erythromycin included) are sensitive to the antibiotics from cannabis in the same degree throughout. So far, we have not observed that any resistance of the staphylococcus strains to these substances would arise. The degree of the artificially produced resistance to these substances, as shown by Martinec, corresponds with the origin and the degree of resistance to substances of the phenolic type and to other disinfectants.
FIGURE 9 Inhibitory effect upon staphylococcus when placing the circular paper chromatotogram - capillary analysis - into inoculated Agar. The light centre and the spots around the periphery of the Agar plate indicate the boundary of the inhibitory zone produced by the active substance. It appears that there are two biologically active substances present whose partition factors show to be different; evidence in this respect could be brought forward chemically.

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FIGURE 10 A parallel drawn between the rate of the inhibitory effect of the extract from Cannabis indica and of penicillin upon penicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. I - 2% acidum carbolicum liq. II - 1,000 OU of penicillin. III - Hemp extract in 70% ethyl alcohol. IV - Hemp extract in 96% ethyl alcohol.

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FIGURE 11 Preliminary titration of the IRC-effect upon Staphylococcus aureus (Oxford method). Concentrations: 2%, 1%, ?%, 1:1,000, 1:10,000, 1:100,000

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The tests carried out with other micro-organisms, particularly with gram-negative strains, just as well as with fungi and yeast, gave negative results (table 4). On the contrary our work evidenced the positive effect of the isolated substances upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Effect of the Cannabis indica resin upon some common pathogene micro-organisms

Investigated strain
1. Micrococcus albus
2. Staphylococcus pyogen. aureus haemolyt. sensitive to penicillin
3. Staphylococcus pyogen. aureus haemolyt. resistant to penicillin
4. Streptococcus alpha haemolyt.
5. Streptococcus beta haemolyt.

6. Enterococcus
7. Diplococcus pneumoniae
8. Erysipelothrix rhusiopath
9. Sarcina lutea
10. Corynebact. diphtheriae
11. Corynebact. Cutis
12. Bac. anthracis
13. Bac. Subtilis
14. Bac. mesentericus
15. Clostridium perfringens
16. Escherichia coli
17. Salmonella typhi
18. S. paratyphi B
19. Sh. Shigae (Sh. Flexneri, Sh. Kruse Sonnei)
20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
21. Proteus vulgaris
22. Mycobacterium tuberculosis


As previously mentioned in the section on chemistry, both the perfect extraction of the effective substance and the method of isolation of the resins have been elaborated and patented. Whilst the preliminary investigations were carried out with hemp extracts obtained by the help of some organic solvents (ethylalcohol, ethylether, petrolether, benzene), the proper work and study of the antibacterial effect were accomplished throughout by the help of the purified substance of resin nature, further on designated as the IRC (Isolated Resin from Cannabis), from the viewpoint of chemistry a mixture of acid and phenolic fractions; hence, we have used not the crystalline forms which have been shown to be less effective but the mixture mentioned above - the resin. The crystalline forms have been found particularly useful for the evaluation of the chemical structure, the determination of the chemical and physical properties and the constitution of the effective substances. Consequently, all the results mentioned below will refer to the IRC, tested upon Staphylococcus aureus haemolyticus.

Velocity of the bactericide effect of various IRC-concentrations upon the investigated micro-organisms

IRC-concentrationVelocity of the effect when adding antibiotics 1 : 100
Immediately sterile
1 : 1,000
Sterile after 15 to 30 minutes
1 : 10,000
Sterile after 3 hours
1 : 100,000
Sterile after 8 hours
1 : 1,000,000
After 24 hours remarkably inhibited growth
Control without IRC
Massive growth and opacity

4. Determination of the magnitude of the bactericide effect
It could be demonstrated by us that the IRS produces a pronounced bactericide effect in vitro; in lower concentrations the growth and reproduction, of sensitive bacteria are but slowed down. The rate of the effect in vitro has been tested both by the help of the modified Oxford method on solid culture mediums and in fluid mediums of peptone water. The Oxford method was shown to be by far the least sensitive. There were shown to be many factors involved which have no connexion with the antibiosis as, for example, diffusion, the number of inoculated microbes and so forth. It can be utilized with advantage only for purposes of orientation (fig. 11). Whilst the maximum of the effect of the IRC-dilution was found to be with a concentration of about 1:10,000 when the Oxford method was used, the tests carried out in the fluid medium of peptone water evidenced a bactericide effect still in a dilution of 1:100,000 after inoculation within 24 hours, and a significant inhibition of the growth in a dilution of 1:1,000,000.
FIGURE 12 A tridimensional graphic representation of the velocity of the bactericide effect of various IRC-concentrations upon staphylococcus aureus in fluid media in vitro

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The antibacterial magnitude of the IRC-effect in ethylenglycol upon the BK H/37 RV strain in a Sauton fluid medium was found by titration up to a dilution of 1:100,000. In detailed work carried out in the Laboratory for Bacteriology of the Sanatorium at Vysne Hagy (High Tatra) where independent tests for control were carried out, the limit of the effect upon the same strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was determined to be present up to a dilution of 1:150,000.

FIGURE 13 Graphic representation of the decrease of the number of micro-organisms after various time-intervals and in different IRC-concentrations

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Velocity of the bactericide IRC-effect upon Staphylococcus aureus

Number of colonies Time controlIRC 1:100IRC 1:1,000IRC 1:10,000IRC 1:100,000Control Immediately after application of antibiotics
58,64020,60025,000 After 15 minutes
- -
356020,500 After 30 minutes
3716,000 After 45 minutes
- -
20,300Proportional increase of the number of the microorganisms
After 1 hour
2918,800 After 2 hours
121,760 After 3 hours
14278 After 4 hours
After 5 hours
After 6 hours
After 8 hours
After 12 hours

After 24 hours
Massive growth

5. Determination of the velocity of the bactericide effect of the various IRC-concentrations upon test
The velocity of the bactericide effect was determined with the aid of the routinely used method in the medium of pep-tone water infected with staphylococcus (100,000,000 bacteria in 5 ml). We recorded the time within which the infected peptone water became sterile due to the appropriate IRC concentration. The results obtained were shown to be uniform (table 5, and diagram in fig. 12).
FIGURE 14 Graphic representation of the influence of the inactivating substances in vitro upon the decrease of the IRC-effect in solid culture media

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Resin isolated from
Cannabis indica
Agar Agar plasma Blood-Agar 10/ 00 aqueous solution
201511 1% alcohol solution
261614 1% aqueous solution

(:oops:Too many images- see part 2 in the next post! - Granny)

Edited by Storm Crow, 15 June 2010 - 11:42 PM.

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#2 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:06 PM

FIGURE 15 Effect of the inactivating substances in vitro upon the decrease of the antibacterial IRC-effect in: 1 - Meat-peptone Agar. 2 - Agar with 10% plasma.

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FIGURE 16 Graphic representation of the influence of the inactivating substances in vitro upon the decrease of the IRC-effect in fluid media; evaluated after a period of 24 hours

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FIGURE 17 Graphic representation of the pH-effect upon the activity of streptomycin (Stoll) and of the IRC when staphylococcus species are concerned

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Analogously we followed the decreasing number of bacteria. Fifty cc of sterile peptone water were infected with a diluted 18-hour-old Staphylococcus aureus culture which, according to the control, contained 30,000 micro-organisms in 1 cc. Into each of the individual flasks the IRC was added, progressively diluted from 1:100 up to 1:100,000 and, with the aid of the usual method of cultivation, and after definite time intervals, the decreasing number of bacteria in 1 cc was recorded (table 6, and diagram in fig. 13).
FIGURE 18 Graphic representation of the pH-effect upon the activity of penicillin (Stoll) and upon the acetyl derivative of the acid from cannabis

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Substances inactivating the antibacterial effect of the IRC
A detailed study has been carried out in vitro on solid and in fluid culture mediums with regard to the effect of blood, serum, cysteine, thiosulfate, meat peptone broth and Sauton medium upon the bactericide magnitude of the IRC. All the substances mentioned above, save for cysteine and thiosulfate, showed a decrease in the biological effect to a larger or smaller extent (fig. 14, 15). Whilst in the standard peptone water there could be observed a bactericide effect upon the staphylococcus up to a concentration of 1:100,000, under the same conditions after addition of an amount of 10 per cent blood or plasma the concentration showed itself active only up to a dilution of 1:1,000. It is interesting to notice that bloods of various origin, and even of different groups, do not produce the same inactivating effect. In the same way, in comparison with the medium of peptone water, the peptone broth showed a decrease in the bactericide effect by one degree (fig. 16).
6. Effect of the pH-value upon the antibacterial effect of the IRC
Stoll et al published a report dealing with the problem of the dependence of the magnitude of the antibacterial effect upon the pH-value with regard to penicillin and streptomycin. They found that at lower pH-values the anti-biotics of acid character produce a more pronounced effect than at the pH-value within the alkaline range (penicillin). On the contrary, the effectiveness of streptomycin rises steeply with the rising pH. In our experiments the same results were obtained. We followed on solid culture mediums, and at pH-values that varied between 5 and 8, the rate of the inhibiting effect upon Staphylococcus aureus. The various concentrations tested were as follows: (a) natrium salts of the IRC in alkaline aqueous solutions, (b) the crystalline acetyl derivative of the isolated cannabidiolic acid.
FIGURE 19 pH-effect upon the IRC-action upon Staphylococcus aureus in meat-peptone Agar a - 1 per cent IRC (sodium-salt) in alcohol (5 drops placed into a depression in the Agar-surface). b - 1 per cent IRC (sodium-salt) in water (5 drops placed into a depression in the Agar-surface). (one drop on filter paper applied to the Agar-surface). c - 1 per cent IRC (sodium-salt).

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In the first case the increasing effectiveness of the solution along with the rising pH-values bore analogy to the one of streptomycin (fig. 17).
On the contrary, in the second case, the effectiveness of the acid tested showed an increase on the acid side, which was analogous with the effect of the pH-value upon the antibiotic effect of penicillin (fig. 18).
As may be seen from both diagrams, there is a noticeable difference to be found with regard to the size of the inhibition zones under standard conditions and varying pH. The maximum of sodium salts in water lies at about pH 7.5, subsequently approximately at the pH of the plasma. Less advantageous is the considerable decrease of the effect in an acid medium - for example, of a suppurant wound. The photograph of fig. 19 portrays the considerable disparity as to the effectiveness of the isolated substances at varying pH under conditions which are otherwise maintained. The same concentrations of active substances have been tested in parallel line in an Agar culture medium once at pH 5.5, and the second time at pH 7.5.


On the basis of the dependence mentioned above, conclusions should be drawn as to the practical utilization of the preparations with antibacterial substances from cannabis at varying pH of some pathological processes as, for example, in suppurant wounds, furuncles, otitis, sinusitis and the like.
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#3 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:24 PM


Prof. Jan Kabelik - HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT
Properties of isolated substances

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A brief survey of the methods of isolation and the physical and chemical properties and structures of the isolated antibacterial substances

By F. Santavy & Z. Krejci

During the last two decades, attention has been drawn to the isolation and toxicology of the substances contained in the plant, Cannabis sativa. The following substances have been isolated: cannabinol, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, quebrachitol (l-inositolmonomethylether), 1-methyl-4-isopro-pylbenzen, the so-called cannabol of phenolic character which yields a readily crystallizing ester with the chloride of the azobenzencarbonic acid and an optically active and volatile material which was not studied in more detail. In addition, from the individual parts of the plant a series of less important substances has been isolated and listed in detail in Wehmer's compendium. The quantitative changes of carotene found present in Cannabis sativa have been investigated by Lebedev.
It is perhaps also of interest that cannabis greatly increases the hypnotic effect of barbiturates.
Moreover there exists a series of communications concerned with the isolation and study of substances contained in cannabis which can be extracted from the petrol extract due to its solubility in alkaline lye or in sodium carbonate. The most detailed work in this line was carried out by Todd et al. But none of the authors succeeded in isolating from that portion any acid in crystalline form,-i.e., either an acid itself or its derivative - designating it or determining its constitution. Probably it was the amorphous substance isolated by us and the cannabidiolic acid which was studied further that Todd et al. had in hand (see below) but they conclude: "... it is concluded that the alkali-soluble portion of the resin contains esters of cannabidiol and cannabinol with a phenolic acid ".
Among the isolated and identified substances mentioned above, cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol proved to be pharmacologically interesting with regard to the hashish effect; a specific hashish-effect is produced only by tetrahydrocannabinol. The formulas of these three substances are:
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All these compounds have already been prepared synthetically and, in addition, a series of homologous derivatives has been prepared for the purpose of establishing the relationships between the constitution and the biological effectiveness.
At this stage of the development of the investigation of substances contained in Cannabis sativa we began a new line of investigation when one of us found that there are substances contained in it which show an antibiotic effect upon some micro-organisms.
1. Starting material
Fresh or dried pistillate flowers of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa var. indica - fig. 3) were used in order to extract the active substances. A plant was used which was not cultivated in a tropical climate, but in the temperate climate of Czechoslovakia for more than five years. We know perfectly well that this factor had undoubtedly a considerable influence both upon the quantitative production of the effective substances or, respectively, upon the composition of the substances contained in the cannabis, and this has been also confirmed by Pulewka. Consequently, it may be assumed that this inconstant "variety indica" has become closely similar to Cannabis sativa, a plant grown for industrial purposes. Positive results have also been obtained when investigating effective substances contained in Cannabis sativa L., a plant commonly cultivated particularly in Slovakia for the industrial utilization of the hemp fibre. We succeeded in showing that the drug from this plant contains antibacterially effective substances. Unfortunately, the drug from the warmer, tropical or subtropical regions was not available for comparison. The drug obtained from Romania and Yugoslavia did not vary fundamentally in comparison with the raw material available in Slovakia. It must be born in mind that the various cannabis species cultivated in the same climate differ considerably with regard to the quantity of the biologically active substances present; the quantity of the substance amounted from about 0.2 g to 25 g/kg. Likewise, the varying quality of the period of vegetation (dry, rainy, warm and cool weather and also the manure) produces a considerable effect upon the production of the resin and, subsequently, of the biologically active substances. The best, and most valuable raw material yielding antibacterial substances and containing on the average 1-1.5% effective resin substances has been found at the stage when the seed is mature.
FIGURE 3, Cannabis sativa var. indica - plant shoots. A - Flowering shoots of the pistillate plant (rich in resins). B - Flowering shoots of the staminate plant.

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2. Method of isolation
The preliminary experiments showed that the biologically effective substances (46-50) of the resin from Cannabis sativa may be easily extracted with ether; the paper chromatography revealed that highly polar substances were being dealt with. After having carried out a series of preliminary experiments, our method of isolation was as follows.
Fresh and rapidly dried tops and leaves of Cannabis sativa were extracted in the cold in a percolator with benzene or, preferably, with petrol ether. After partial distillation of the solvents under reduced pressure at 30°C, the residue was carefully extracted with 4% natrium hydroxide, into which both the acids and the substances of phenolic character could be taken up. They were extracted with chloroform after acidification.
First of all the oily residue was shaken in a nitrogen atmosphere with an aqueous NaHCO3 solution with which the acids, particularly the cannabidiolic acid, were extracted to yield a slightly yellow product. By shaking with NaHCO3 an oily residue was obtained which was shown to consist in the main of substances of phenolic character. Both the acid and the phenolic fractions produced an antibacterial effect upon some micro-organisms.

Output and biological activity of the single fractions isolated from cannabis

Output (grammes*) Biological activity Petrolether fraction
Ether fraction
Chloroform fraction
Ethanol-chloroform fraction
Aqueous residue
Phenolic constituent

Acetylated phenolic constituent

Acid constituent (cannabidiolic acid)

Acetylated cannabidiolic acid

Acetylated and hydrogenated cannabidiolic acid


Trans-cinnamic acid

* Values referred to 1 kg of dried material.

After three reprecipitations the acid fraction was allowed to dry over a long period under water pump vacuum at 20°C to yield a colourless glassy substance, the empirical formula of which is C22H30O4 '[&alpha]D24 -95° ± 8° (c = 1.00 in chloroform); [&alpha]D24 -115° ± 4° (c = 1.05 in ethanol). The substance crystallized readily after acetylation, m.p. 80-100°/127-128°, [&alpha]D -114° ± 4° (c = 1 in ethanol).
Repeated isolations showed that the antibiotically effective cannabidiolic acid from Cannabis sativa is very sensitive to atmospheric oxygen (particularly in a warm atmosphere) and, furthermore, that the acid undergoes changes due to higher temperature and a simultaneously reduced pressure.
Modification according to Schultz & Haffner.
From some of the crops the acetylester of the acid, m.p. 95-100/ 110-15° was obtained. According to our assumption, there are either two isomers present whose occurrence is conditioned by the climate, or these substances are interconvertible.
FIGURE 4, Rate of inhibition of the acid and phenolic fraction of the extract from cannabis upon the inoculated staphylococcus (meat peptone broth) 1 - Acetylated fraction from which the cannabidiol acid crystallized. 2 - The acetylated phenolic residue.

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3. Determination of the structure
As previously mentioned, the biologically active acid isolated from Cannabis sativa has the empirical formula C22H30O4, and yields, when acetylated, a diacetyl derivative C26H34O6 whose extinction curve in the UV-range closely resembles that of the cannabidiol derivatives. At the beginning of our experimental work, therefore, the acid obtained by us was already called cannabidiolic acid:
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By boiling with alkali, the acetylated cannabidiolic acid is saponified and partially decarboxylated, which results in precipitation of a substance of phenolic character from the solution, particularly after its saturation with carbon dioxide. That the substance undergoes decarboxylation was best seen when we tried to purify the proper acid isolated by us or the acid liberated from its acetylester by the help of sublimation. The process gives rise to cannabidiol, a substance characterized by the positive Beam-reaction and as 3,5-dinitrobenzoate. This supports our former view that, regarding the structure, the antibacterially effective acid, isolated from Cannabis sativa, is closely related to cannabidiol.
The position of the carboxy1 group in the molecule of the cannabidiolic acid was studied along the physical-chemical pathway.
On comparing the optical rotation of the cannabidiolic acid, its acetyl derivative and its tetrahydro derivative with the cannabidiol, derivatives we found a remarkable correspondence. An analogous agreement exists between the derivatives of the tetrahydrocannabinol and hexahydrocannabinol; acetylation and methylation do not bring about a significant change in the degree of the optical rotation. The percentage rate of the molecular optical rotation of the hydrogenated and the unhydrogenated derivatives is, as far as these three groups are concerned, practically the same. The optical rotation changes only with the varying position of the double bond of the B-ring and because of the formation of an ethereal bridge due to conversion of cannabidiol into tetrahydrocannabinol. From the above it may be concluded that the carboxyl group of the cannabidiolic acid does not seem to be attached to some carbon of the isocyclic nucleus where it could lead to the formation of a further optically active centre, but that it is attached either to the aromatic nucleus or to some other carbon where an optically active centre cannot be formed. The ready decarboxylation excludes its position on the carbons 7, 9 and 15.

Values of the optical rotation of the single substances (in ethanol) (Degrees)

Cannabidiolic acid and its derivatives

Cannabidiolic acid
Diacetyl derivative
Tetrahydrodiacetyl derivative
Cannabidiol and its derivatives

Cannabidiol (2)
3,5-dinitrobenzoate (2)
-76 *
Dimethylether (2)
Monomethylether (2)
Tetrahydrodimethylether (3)
89 Tetrahydrodiacetyl derivative (3)
Tetrahydrocannabinol and its derivatives (l b, 4)

Isomer I
Isomer II

* Acetone

In addition, we have tried to determine the position of the carboxyl spectroscopically.
The acetyl derivative of the cannabidiolic acid shows an inflexion in the UV-range, or a maximum at the same wavelength as cannabidiol, or its derivatives (fig. 5). Analogously, the same maxima are produced by the diacetylester of the hydrogenated cannabidiolic acid.
Evidently, therefore, the carboxyl group, of the cannabidiolic acid is not conjugated with the double bond of the nucleus B.
Still more striking is the behaviour of the carboxyl group in IR-spectroscopy (fig. 6). We attribute the frequency at 1770 cm -1 to both phenoacetoxy groups. The frequency at 1698 cm -1 to the free carboxy group, or to its carbonyl, respectively. This frequency does not vary, either with the acetylester of the cannabidiolic acid or with its hydrogenated product (cf. table 3).
Our thanks are due to Dr. Horak, Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences, Prague, for the measuring of the infra-red spectra and their evaluation.

IR-frequency values within the carbonyl range

Concentrated Solution
Diluted solution

In chloroform

Acetylester of the cannabidiolic acid
1698 cm-1
1700 cm-1
1728 cm-1
Hydrogenated acetylester of the cannabidiolic acid
1698 cm-1
1700 cm-1
1728 cm-1

FIGURE 5, UV-spectra of the cannabidiol derivatives (in ethanol). A - Acetylester of the cannabidiolic acid. B - Hydrogenated acetylester of the cannabidiolic acid. For comparison the curves of the dimethylether of the cannabidiol © and of the dimethylether of the dihydrocannabidiol (D) have been taken from the literature.

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With regard to the fact that the frequencies of the carbonyl of both acetoxy compounds (i.e., of the saturated and of the unsaturated) are found to be the same, it may be assumed that it is not a carboxyl situated in position 4, 5 and 9 which is being dealt with, for the disrupture of the conjugation due to reduction would be followed by a shift of the frequency to higher values. On the contrary, the frequencies observed in chloroform (1698 cm-1) and in dioxane (1728 cm-1) evidence again that it is not the alicyclic acid (i.e., in position 1,2,3,6) - namely, one whose carbonyl is not conjugated - for the frequencies of such acids have been found to appear in the higher frequency region (in chloroform at about 1715, in dioxane at about 1740 cm-1). But there was a very good agreement to be seen with regard to the frequency of benzoic acid (in chloroform 1694, in dioxane 1724 cm-1).
FIGURE 6 IR-spectra I - Acetylester of the hydrogenated cannabidiolic acid. II - Acetylester of the cannabidiolic acid. Both compounds have been solved in chloroform.

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If we take it for granted that there is a carboxyl attached to the aromatic nucleus, it is only conceivable in position 3 (or 5, respectively).
The frequency at 1615 cm-1 belongs to the aromatic vibrations and the frequencies at 900 and 1650 cm-1 which disappear during hydrogenation must be attributed to methylene in isopropylene.
On the basis of the organically preparatory experiments carried out so far, comparison of the optical rotation and of the UV- and the IR-spectra, the formula for cannabidiolic acid suggested by us is as follows:
(3-methyl-6-isopropenyl-4'-n-pentyl-2',6'- dihydroxy-l,2,3,6-tetrahydrodiphenyl-3'-carboxylic acid)
The arrangement of the substituents of the nucleus A of the cannabidiolic acid, as formulated by us, does not appear to be exceptional among the natural substances obtained from plants. If, in the case of the cannabidiolic acid, we do not take into consideration the partially aromatic nucleus B, we obtain the olivetolic acid which has been found present in numerous plants. This substance is also readily decarboxylized and thus converted into olivetol which forms the aromatic moiety of cannabidiol. There are also some deeply related reactions (FeC13,CHC13+ 10% KOH, Vanillin + HCl) to be found in both groups of these substances.
Independently from us (1955) Schulz & Haffner (1958) isolated and described the above-mentioned cannabidiolic acic. The determination of the constitution was carried out (1959) by means of the organic-preparative methods which led them to the same results as those obtained by us (1958). In their communication the authors conclude that the cannabinols occur in the plant due to decarboxylation of the aforementioned cannabidiolic acid.
In addition to the cannabidiolic acid a further acid, m.p. 131-133°, has been isolated from Cannabis sativa, and identified by us as trans-cinnamic acid.

Our study of the Mideuropean flora with regard to its contents of substances producing antibacterial effects comprehends 3,000 species from which the Indian hemp - Cannabis indica - grown in Czechoslovakia has been selected for elaborate investigation. A preliminary method of isolation accomplished by paper chromatography with the disclosure of an effective zone in the biological way has been described.
The most advantageous methods of extraction were determined, and the bactericide effect of the hemp substances experimentally proved in vitro on Gram-positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus pyogenes autreus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus - resistant to penicillin, Streptococcus beta haemolyticus, Streptococcus viridans, Pneumococcus Cornyebacterium diphteriae, and Bacillus anthracis.
Gram-negative microorganisms of the typhus-coli group remain resistent, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. An excellent antibacterial effect on Mycobacterium in vitro even in a dilution 1:150,000 could be ascertained.
A parallel between the bactericide effect of isolated, amorphous, and crystal substances, and a comparison of the sensibility of the two applied bacterial methods, both the modified Oxford method and the tests in a liquid medium was made in detail. The limit of efficacy in the maximal dilution of biologically active substance (1:100,000) and the velocity of their effect in various dilutions were determined. The influence of inactivating factors has been studied in detail. Blood, plasma, and serum partly inactivate them and reduce their antibacterial effect.
As a conclusion, a comparison of the efficacy of these active substance[s] with penicillin and streptomycin at various pH was worked out, and a summary of hemp preparations manufactured for the purpose of clinical application in stomatology, oto-rhino-laryngology, dermatology and phthisiology has been given.
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#4 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:28 PM


Prof. Jan Kabelik - HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT
Therapeutic results in stomatology

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Cannabis substances were applied either in the form of a 5% hempsalve with lanolin, or they were used in the form of alcohol extracts for mouth sprayes. (sic) The application of these substances shows significant positive results in the treatment of herpes labialis, paradental painful gum pockets, gum capuches over the wisdom teeth, dry sockets, aphthae and ulcerous gingivostomatitis. More than five hundred patients were subjected to this treatment.
Cannabis substances found their application to practical advantage mixed with sterile tooth-powder for the treatment and maintenance of a vital tooth pulp. This was done in cases of indirect covering of the tooth pulp (about 300 patients - 80 of whom were reexamined), and in those of direct covering (about 70 cases - with 15 patients reexamined). Even here quick analgesia was considered to be the positive effect. In two patients, direct covering was experienced with teeth destined for extraction beforehand, and the extraction performed a certain time thereafter and the teeth studied histologically. For general therapeutic use, it is suggested to verify these methods in further cases or, eventually, to find methods of a more suitable application of cannabis substances in direct or indirect covering of the tooth pulp.

In 64% of patients with deep dental caries incidence, and in more than 30% cases of casually opened or irritated tooth-pulp, and finally in 41% of persons suffering from pulpitis partialis positive response could be observed when treated with cannabis paste. This result corresponds to the analogous number obtained on application of the Lezovic-paste. (Paste containing a high ratio of streptomycin, penicillin, tricresol or benzocaine respectively.) The anaesthetic effect of cannabis has been attested: in numerous cases with negative response to therapy painlessness lasting for several days could be attained, in many patients painless necrosis could be achieved. In a number of cases the failure was due to an unsuitable vehicle that did not liberate the antibiotic in the right proportion. (The same vehicle as with the Lezovic-paste was made use of. Future research work will have to include further clinical control, histological investigations and the search for a more proper vehicle.)
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#5 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:31 PM


Prof. Jan Kabelik - HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT
Cannabis indica in oto-rhino-laryngology

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A positive response due to antibiotics obtained from hemp could be observed in patients with otitis, ulcers of the anterior narines, and furuncular otitis. With chronical otitis positive results could be obtained in most cases -- failure, however, in patients with pyocyaneum and proteus infections. The most striking effect could be observed with sinusitis, particularly with both-sided sinusitis maxillaris when one side had been treated with penicillin on control with negative result, whilst the other side had been healed by three punctures of hemp extract. The sinus resultlessly treated wit penicillin showed an immediate positive response to hemp thereafter.

Local application of cannabis indica was experienced in 18 patients suffering from chronic otitis media, and in 4 patients after mastoidectomy. A significant improvement was noticed in 13 cases of chronic otitis. Up to the present, our experiences are of a rather short time, i.e. of three weeks only. It will be necessary to test cannabis with other more proper vehicles that would gradually liberate antibiotica on a satisfactory scale.
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#6 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:37 PM

Prof. Jan Kabelik - HEMP AS A MEDICAMENT
Importance of hemp seeds in the tuberculosis therapy

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During the thirties and forties, in the absence of antibiotics, chemotherapeutics and surgical methods, tuberculosis was rather effectively treated with a therapeutic diet, developed by a team of medical doctors in a sanitarium for patients suffering with tuberculosis at Jince.
The concept was based on two assumptions:
1. ln order to fight tuberculosis effectively, nutrition must supply building material for renewal of tissues destroyed by the disease, be it lungs, other organs, or muscles.
2. The whole diet must support effective function of the liver, thus assuring proper assimilation and utilization of nutrients.
In addition to the selection of nutritious and well-balanced dietary components, attention was paid to the preparation of the food; namely assuring that the nutrients would not be denaturalized. coagulated or rancid due to improper storage or cooking methods.
Two components were considered most important and irreplaceable in the whole diet: oat flakes and a specially processed extract of hemp seed.
It was hemp seed, which attracted the author's attention. It is high in protein (33.0%) and its main protein type, edestine, is well known for its wealth of enzymes and unusual amino acid composition. Most valuable is the amino acid arginin, which is considered essential for formation and growth of new tissue. While other sources of plant protein, for instance soybean protein, contain 6.8% of arginin, edestin contains approximately 3 times as much arginin - 19.0%. This property is of great importance in balancing of diets, requiring high level of arginin.
Before nationalization of the Czechoslovakian Pharmaceutical Industry in 1948, an extract of hemp seed, EDEZYME. was available on the market. Today it is produced as a "home remedv" according to a following recipe:
Ground hemp seed is mixed with warm milk (60 to 80 degrees C) and maintained at this temperature for at least half an hour. Keeping the product in a water bath, while constantly mixing, prevents coagulation of edestin on the bottom of the container. Finished product must be pressed and filtered to separate the indigestible and irritating outer layer of seeds from the colloid solution. One dose prepared from 3/8 of a liter of milk and 50 to 80 grams of hemp seed should be consumed by the patient every second day.
Inclusion of EDEZYM, oat flakes and other, more common dietary components, was tested on two groups of children suffering from tuberculosis in both prewar and war periods. Though no other medication was used and food was rather scarce, all children were considered successfully treated or improved at the end of treatment period. Dietary and/or medical properties of hemp seed deserve our full attention.
PLEASE NOTE: The enclosed study from Czechoslovakia in 1954 bears the limitations of what knowledge was available at the time. In the year 2000, The HempNut Health and Cookbook by Richard Rose and Bridgette Mars (www.TheHempNut.com) added this information to the findings of the Czech Study: "Essential Fatty Acids (found in hemp seeds) help restore wasting bodies by improving the damaged immune systems. They also make it easier for the patient to liquify and expel the mucus built up in the lungs."
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Tuberculosis Hospital at Jince: Chairman: MUDr. Josef Sirek

Chair of the working group: Prof. Dr. Jan Kabelik


If we are discussing the use of hemp seed in the therapy of tuberculosis, we don't think about chemotherapy in today's sense of the word, not even the treatment specifically directed against the Koch bacillus and not a treatment oriented towards diseases that cause changes in the lungs. We think of a total conservative treatment with the emphases on its dietetic or therapeutic nutrition. Therapeutic nutrition becomes then a branch of therapy, namely as a part of the overall effort to "treat the whole human being". For this reason we, according to the Soviet example, begin to understand the importance of the treatment through nutrition in therapy, not excluding physiotherapy. These are, however, the beginnings, lacking direction and therefore up to this point, not too fruitful. One should not be, however, surprised. Even in the Soviet Union the whole question of treatment through nutrition is still controversial, and even the most important nutritional work of the Pevzner school has been subjected to a very critical assessment. Although it was primarily M.I. Pevzner and out of other Soviet authors namely L. M. Model who also in conjunction with tuberculosis rightfully stressed the most important elements of the treatment through nutrition. Another Soviet author, O. L. Gordon, in his presumation entitled "Justification of treatment through nutrition in the clinic and prospects for its expansion" said the following: "Treatment through nutrition is a therapeutic method. As a part of complex therapy it has two goals: To satisfy the physiological needs of the sick organism and to actively influence the pathological process. In this aspect the treatment through nutrition differs from the ordinary nutrition of a sick person". F.K. Mensikov coworker of the Clinic for treatment through nutrition, added that during complex therapy of all diseases proper nutrition is a primary need, while a nutrition which does not take into account the status of the patient could have a negative effect. "Particularly, the treatment through nutrition has an important effect in situations where we need to support regeneration of the tissues, namely when we don't have a medication which could actively support such process". (Presented on December 10, 1954, at the occasion of a scientific conference at Palacky University at Olomouc, as a part of the topic "Hemp seed as a treatment").
It would not be correct to talk about "treatment through nutrition" and not expect from it more than just mere nutrition or doubt that it may actively contribute in the sense of treatment. Even today's physiotherapy, though it has at its disposal rather effective means, can't ignore that such means can be used only for particular patients, and even here one can't put all one's eggs into one basket. In this connection we should remember the words of V.L. Ejnis, used in conclusion of his article 'The work of l. P. Pavlov and clinics of tuberculosis':
"Despite the significant successes of chemotherapy, antibiotics and surgical treatment which substantially improved the prospects of physiotherapy, the fundamental basis of the treatment is still systematic care leading to an increase in the overall resistance of the body. It is now also an important task to improve hygenic-dietetic therapy, incorporating the nutrition of the patient, suffering from tuberculosis".

Towards the end of the first world war physiotherapy freed itself from it helpless position and began a successful attack against tuberculosis. Artificial pneumothorax, exairesa frenicu thoracocaustics, thorakoplatics, extrapleural pneumothorax, Streptomycin, chemotherapy, lobotomy, those are some of the stops on this victorious journey. They are also unquestionable, partial successes, each of which went through a period of excessive hopes and to a point, each of them contributed to the fact that we have forgotten at least partly, the concept of the "Whole human". It leads to a certain indifference to the physiological points of view, hygienic-dietetic treatment, which was critiqued by V.L. Ejnis. The hygienic-dietetic treatment was, by some quiet agreement, reserved for cases, where, for various reasons it was impossible or was not indicated to use "active" means of therapy.
ln the mutual competition for the development of new means of 'active" therapy, our small and in every way, poorly equipped sanitarium at Jince, had only minimum opportunity to participate. The role of Cinderella, however, had some advantages. The less we have been in a position to keep pace with the modern physiotherapy, the more we have concentrated on areas, which were ignored by others. In our small sanitarium we have been in a better position than in other, bigger institutes, to concentrate on hygienic-dietetic treatment, formats the medical nutrition. We have done it correctly. And today, with thirty years of experience behind us, we ieel gratified that the Soviet science gradually confirms nearly everything that we have found, be it empirically, by induction or by a series of trials. In perfect function of the liver we have seen a key to the perfect assimilation of nutrients; the first order of the day in our medical nutrition was the following: Exclude or limit to the maximum, food which will burden the liver or in some cases, cause damage to the liver. In nutrition of the patients with tuberculosis put emphasis on components which will protect the liver and enable their smooth function. This way, we actually developed a "liver diet" sooner, more or less coincidentally. We laid the foundation, which became a logical pre-condition of every dietetic effort. The role of the liver for the nutrition of a human, and a sick one in particular, is in its variability so immensely important, that it must be recognized by everyone who would like to maintain the "whole human" in good health, or enable him to recover from whatever sickness.
In keeping with this principle, we have concentrated on excluding or reducing from the nutrition of our patients, less valuable fats, namely rancid or burned, all fried, roasted foods, pork drippings or boiled butter, all meats preserved by salt and canning, all smoked sausages, beef and duck meat, duck eggs and spicy foods. On the other hand, we have emphasized the diet of our patients, a relative surplus of proteins, in the form of light types of meat, dietetically processed, cottage cheese, which was specifically processed to avoid coagulation and denaturalization. sour milk. yogurt, raw egg yolks or only partially boiled to avoid coagulation. Out of fats we recommended only natural fresh butter, fresh cream, olive oil without signs of rancidity, fresh or preserved fruit without any artificial preservatives, imported fruits from the south in fresh or dry form, nuts and almonds. Out of vitamins we recommend plentiful levels of vitamins B1, A and C. We will use potatoes as a side dish but fewer flour based side dishes. boiled vegetables or vegetables steamed with butter, or if possible, raw (carrots). Use few desserts, but of good quality.
With this diet, we have incorporated into the nutrition of our patients, important substances, contained in non-denaturalized fresh fats and proteins and known as liver protecting components (methionine, choline, insitol, unsaturated short chain fatty acids) and amino acids, which are considered metabolically most valuable (methionine, tryptophan. tyrosine. fenylalanine and others). Lastly, we are adding substances, without which the liver can't properly function (thiamin, carotine, ascorbic acid, vitamin F).
This regimen, aimed at liver protection, was combined with a reduction of the daily meals to three, at most four, with 4-5 hours intervals without any food or drink. This also lead to the elimination of over burdening the liver, sometimes blamed on the frequent presentation of food.
These dietetic provisions were practiced in Jince a quarter century ago, and represented at that time, and even now, a courageous deviation from common practice. Similarly, a suggestion of Prof. Arnerling, from Olomouc, requesting that the nutrition of patients, suffering with tuberculosis. must fully respect the function of the liver, was an expiring voice in the desert. Only long-term effort and undying persistence enabled us to keep such reforms alive and viable until the time, when the Soviet science on "medical nutrition' demonstrated their competency.

The value of the tree can be judged by the fruit. The value of the medical nutrition by the nutritional and medical results. If we value individual nutritive components during the systematic nutritional and medical trials using such criteria, we would soon find out the importance of the correct selection of particular proteins as well as their state and preparation. Though meat is the most common source of protein and its importance in nutrition is beyond an argument, in medical nutrition, it's importance is far behind the proteins in milk and eggs. Eggs represent exclusive building material of the bird's embryo, while milk is a primary source of nutrients in quickly growing and well prospering young mammals. I think that we rightfully call these proteins "plastic", as they are the true material from which the body tissues are built. A daily intake of 100-150 grams of specially prepared loose cottage cheese in the state of hydrogel, and two egg yolks mixed together with other components of the diet, will have much more positive effect on the health status of a sick person than their weight or caloric equivalent in the form of meat. We can't however, expect such effects in a cottage cheese which is coagulated, denaturalized, or prepared by quick coagulation of milk which was too acidic and brought to too high temperature. Similarly, the egg yolk must not be coagulated by boiling to a "hard" state or by frying or other inappropriate preparation methods.
With diseases, such as tuberculosis, which in its active stage is characterized by its tendency for destruction of not only the affected organ (lungs), but as well of the whole body (loss of weight, autolysis of muscles and other tissues, we can't value enough such food, which can serve the living organism as building material. As well, we must present this rare material to the patient's organism in a natural colloid state in which the specific dynamic effect will be best preserved.
The importance of this premise will be more obvious if we, in addition to proteins of animal origin, include proteins of vegetable origin.
The main sources of vegetable proteins, suitable for the nutrition of human are seeds, grains and other fruits. Some can be eaten in a raw state, fresh or professionally dried (nuts or figs); in this later case we should not worry about denaturalization. Unfortunately. the majority of people depend for their nutrition on cooked and baked foods, made out of meal. The aleurone layer of the cereal grains, containing dietetically important proteins and rich in vitamin B1 will remain in the mill. The rest is denatualized by baking or boiling in water. It is hard to believe that professionally prepared oat flakes, in a dose of 15-20 grams will affect the distinct restitution of nutritional status and stimulate healing processes. On the other hand, a ten to twenty times higher dose of cereal proteins in denaturalized and coagulated state, will have no effect in this area. There are, however, certain differences between oats and other cereal grains.
In oats, the aleurone layer is preserved. In addition to vitamin B1, oats contain vitamin B2 in larger quantities than other cereal grains. In its protein structure, the gliadin form dominates over glutenin; the fat content is much higher, giving the oat flake a hazelnut flavor and contributing to the elimination of hunger. The content of gluconins, components which lower the blood sugar, has the same effect "per se" as insulin has when applied parenterally. The majority of the strong points of oats are wasted if oat flakes are boiled in water or in soup, or denaturalized by other improper method. What will be left is just a food, rich in calories but without the medical-nutritional effects. Only the milk and careful preparation will keep the proteins of oat grains in colloid and dietetically active state.

From the oat grain there was a direct route to the hemp seed or "semenec". Not perhaps because our forefathers considered hemp seed porridge and soup as "not bad food", but because by its content of edestin and a wealth of enzymes, hemp seed ranks among the best seeds overall.
Chemically, edestin differs substantially from gliadin and other cereal proteins. It is closer to the proteins of nuts and oil seeds and contains a high amount of arginin (up to 19%), which is the amino acid that encourages growth and formation of new tissues. Similarly, as in casein it contains methionine, which is known for its protective function of the liver. As casein, it contains tryptophan (important pro-vitamin pp-niacine), which is missing in cereals and without which it is impossible to achieve a nitrogen balance. It contains nearly all known amino acids, namely the essential ones, without which the growth and well being of the organism is impossible. Without it, food could never be complete and hvpoproteminaemy occurs - an event, singled out the by Soviet author L.M. Model as the root of the disease of tuberculosis. It is impossible in this short presentation to go into greater detail. Let's, however, bear in mind that the amino acids, which are the most important in the medical nutrition - tryptophan, tyrosinc, phenylalaninc - are separated during the digestion of edestin first. Furthermore, the arginin, cystein and alaninc content in edestin is much higher than in other proteins of plant or animal origin. Finally, amino acids, which are in edestin in smaller quantity than in proteins of animal origin, can be easily replaced in medical nutrition by cottage cheese. There are plenty of reasons why hemp seed edestin should be, in addition to cottage cheese, egg yolk and oat gluten, included among the most important components of medical nutrition for patients with tuberculosis.
As we have witnessed in conjunction with the other proteins, it is of great importance, particularly in the case of edestin, to maintain it in colloid state. From this point of view, our product EDEZYM (the name originated from two words: edestin and enzyme), was very suitable. It has been available on the market for a number of years, though was discontinued after the nationalization of the pharmaceutical industry, in 1948. We may use, however, a simple home preparation, assuming that we have a high quality hemp seed, no older than two years, in which all the proteins and enzymes are still fully active (in order to find out we may conduct a germination test). Old recipes, in which our forefathers prepared the hemp seed soup or porridge, are not useful anymore. In the majority of cases, they lead to coagulation and denaturalization of edestin. ln the preparatory stage we have to remove the outside layer of the seed, which in contrast to oats, is indigestible, discourages the intake and is irritating during the digestion. The only remaining solution is to transfer the content of the seed into a colloid solution and remove the indigestible residue by pressing and sifting.
The best method is based on the extraction of ground hemp seeds by hot milk (60-80 degrees C). The content is constantly mixed while it is kept in a water bath (double boiler), which prevents the excessive heating of the bottom of the container. If this is not done properly, edestin starts to coagulate from the bottom. Sometimes it fully coagulates. Milk could be skimmed, but must be fully fresh and without preservatives. Sweet whey may be used as well. We can obtain it by the coagulation of casein with chymosine. Maceration of the hemp seed, at the above mentioned temperature. should last at least half an hour, preferably more. The finished colloid must be aggressively pressed, filtrated, in some cases mildly sweetened and offered to the patient either immediately or kept at a temperature of 60 degrees C in a water bath, until used. This will prevent hydrolics or fermentative breakdown of the active components. One dose, prepared from 3/8 litre of milk and 50-80 grams of hemp seed, should be consumed by the patient every second day on an empty stomach.

The human organism is capable of dealing, under favourable conditions and to a certain level, with the tuberculosis illness without particular treatment. During times, when calmetisation was unknown and modern antibiotics and tuberculostatics were not available, the majority of primary effect cases were healed spontaneously, at least as far as children beyond the baby stage are concerned. Certainly, the modern organization of the fight against tuberculosis (calmetization, the introduction of child preventative medicine, regular Rig check-ups) lead to a significant reduction in small children morality and proving that we can't rely too much, or exclusively, on the spontaneous healing and protective properties of the child's organism.
This is more true in cases of post primary (secondary) child tuberculosis of lungs and Iymphatic glands. Here, as well, we can see a significant tendency for spontaneous healing, but the assumption of favorable conditions plays a decisive role. lt was for this reason, that during the not so distant past, the cases of "secondary" lung tuberculosis, prevalent in children of school age, the mortality level was rather high, namely among poor people.
This fact underlies again the importance of living conditions. In mature individuals (therial lung pthisis), though the spontaneous healing of lung damage is much rarer than in children, it is much more probable where the living conditions are more favourable. lt is for this reason, that a higher percentage of mature people were saved from the upper layers of the society.
lt is true, however, that wealth and poverty must not necessarily synonymous with good and bad living conditions. But, in contrast to the present days when living conditions in our countrv are more or less uniformly provided, wealthy people were able to assure for themselves favourable living conditions, assuming they understood what represents "true favourable living conditions". Money without knowledge is not enough. The knowledge, which is required, is defined in every time period by the scientific content of the term "hygienic-dietetic healing".
The substance of this "term" developed historically, is changing constantly and will, in conjunction with the general scientific development, continue to change always. It was not a long time ago, when overfeeding a patient suffering from tuberculosis, without taking into consideration the effect on the liver function, was considered purposeful and desirable. Today we have corrected many things, however, many more cry for change. The fast and successful development of "active" treatment methods seems to absorb excessively the attention of ftisoclogs and this leads to insufficient interest in systematic improvements and scientific involvement in hygienic-dietetic methods. This is happening at times when nobody denies that even the most effective "active methods" must be supported by hygienic-dietetic methods, the necessary foundation of all anti-tuberculosis treatments.
Why, then, despite all the progress in "active" therapy, do the hygienic- dietetic methods (foremost the medical nutrition) remain the necessary foundation of all treatments? Why from those methods (and specifically from them) do we expect the fulfillment of the favourable conditions, which make the treatment much easier, and which in some cases, make spontaneous healing possible?
To generate or restore such conditions, during which the human organism is capable of dealing successfully with the disease, is the main mission of hygienic-dietetic treatment and specifically the medical nutrition. lf we are successful and wish to call the resulting healing process "spontaneous" it is only a question of suitable terminology.
If; by using the certain system of medical nutrition, we achieve, in the treatment of tuberculosis, spontaneous healing with considerable probability or regularity, and if we, at the same time. achieve a restitution of the overall nutritional state, during which the tuberculosis slowed down and decreased, then we have solved our problem. This means that we have found the favourable conditions, under which the human organism can better resist the tuberculosis, or deal with it successfully.
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#7 Storm Crow

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Posted 15 June 2010 - 11:39 PM


As a testing stone of such systems of medical nutrition, we can best use the cases of post primary (secondary) child tuberculosis of lymphatic glands and lungs, accompanied by substantial degradation of total nutritional status of body development. Such cases tend to show a substantial tendency towards "spontaneous healing', assuming that the living conditions are favorable. If we can achieve, in such cases, dramatically favourable turns for the better as far as the healing of the lung damage and as far as the nutritional status and body development is concerned, then we have, with the highest probability, presented a proof that the system we have used represents the "favorable conditions".
In the following part, I present two groups of children which will offer the necessary documentation for this case.
The first group of 16 children (8 boys and 8 girls) was treated in Jince sanitarium in 1938. In this difficult period, when the sanitarium - at that time a private enterprise - was, because of the world's economic crises, basically idling. Faced with the threat of Hitler's occupation, I have offered the Red Cross in Prague an expense free stay and treatment for 20 children with tuberculosis. In a few days we filled the first floor of the building by these, exceptionally welcomed guests, sick members of Prague's poor from the following districts: Nusle, Pankrac, Michle, Kosire and Kobylisy. After a few days we excluded four of the 20 children and returned them back to Prague. Two were excluded because we did not diagnose any active tuberculosis changes and two others for other reasons. The remaining 16 children remained under treatment for various lengths of time, as is discussed later.
The children came to us in a state of more or less depressed nutrition. The tuberculosis (primary and secondary) was confirmed and checked by the Prague doctors, from whom we received the children.
While with us, the children (as well as the mature patients) were offered meals three times a day. They drank only during the meal. There could be no doubt that they were not overfed. Once a day, they had the main meal, based on meat. once a day they received 100 g of cottage cheese, 25 g of cream (in Czech: "rozhuda"). Once a day they were offered oat porridge made from 15 g of oat flakes. At noon, always after they consumed soup, they received 75 g of shredded carrots with few drops of lemon juice and a soup-spoon of cream. Twice a day they received 100 grams of fruit, twice a day 20 g of fresh butter from a farm. Otherwise they received mixed home meals with one limitation. All foods, which would have excessively burdened the liver, were excluded.
The children did not use any other medication, with the exception of colloidal extract of hemp seed. EDEZYM, which was described in part IV. Three times a day the children received soup spoon of Edezym, always a quarter hour before the meal (without a drink), then vitamin B1 and vitamin C. They received two tablets daily, though the food was rather vitamin rich.
The lack of appetite and fussiness toward food, characteristic in children suffering with tuberculosis, was gone in all children, without exception, during the first days of treatment. We also noticed in all children from the first days, a distinct and pervasive change in the total health status.
The boys gained on average 1 kg. within 14 days; girls within 20 days. Boys increased their height by 1 cm in 35 days, girls in 38 days. The diameter of the rib cage was increasing in boys by 1 cm in 18 days, while in girls in 20 days. This improvement in the total physical state and body development in all 16 children is obvious from the pictures, made at the beginning of the treatment. Together with the data, collected from individual children, they are presented in the following overview:

Picture No. Age (years) Child's name Treatment duration Weight gain (+kg) Growth in cm Ribcage diameter (Insp.)
In cm
In cm
1-2 6 Jartym Otakar 99 1.6 1.5 1 0 3-4 6 Beck Jindrich 49 1.3 1.5 2 1 5-6 8 Látal Ladislav 52 4.3 1.5 3 3 7-8 8 Skrivánek Mir. 82 3.- 2.- 5 2 9-10 8 Dittrich Karel 52 2.5 1.5 2 0 11-12 8 Machcinyk Jar. 73 3.1 2.- 2 1 13-14 12 Hanke Bohumil 126 13.- 3.5 9 9 15-16 16 Kocman Mirosl. 153 20.- 6.- 14 12 17-18 3 Fádrhonsová Olga 222 3.- 4.5 4 2 19-20 7 Kasíková Helena 159 8.6 4.5 10 8 21-22 11 Vánová Marie 174 10.- 5.- 6 5 23-24 11 Dousová Marie 238 7.5 7.5 8 6 25-26 12 Pulkrábková Hel. 61 3.5 1.- 7 4 27-28 12 Záhlavová Marie 52 6.2 1.- 7 5 29-30 12 Srutová Ružena 159 13.1 5.- 11 10 31-32 12 Prosková Miluse 126 7.2 3.- 5 5

Since the whole group of 16 children were treated at the same time and by the same method, with results indisputably positive there is no doubt. that the treatment was effective. The food, offered three times a day, was neither more abundant or calorically richer than the one which was offered in other institutions and in a majority of families where a child was identified as sick and in need of substantial nutrition. On the contrary, at those institutions we could talk about overfeeding, where meals are presented five or six times a day and the caloric value is higher.
The calories on the plate are not helping if we can't formulate the diet in such a way that the nutrients are utilized and assimilated. Our approach can be summarized in three parts:
1. Preventing overburdening of the liver and other digestive and metabolic organs with harmful foods, offered too frequently. We are trying to encourage their proper functioning by offering some ingredient with specific properties (vitamins and others).
2. We are offering, if possible at every meal, some of the "plastic" proteins, which we have recognized as being natural building material, essential for the formation of animal and plant organisms (cottage cheese, egg yolk, reserve proteins from various plant products, cereal and specifically oat gluten, edestin from hemp seed).
3. Such "plastic" proteins are offered in seemingly small daily doses (for instance 100 g of cottage cheese, I yolk, a few nuts, barely 15 to 20 grams of oats and same amount of hemp seed) but in colloid form, not denaturalized and not coagulated.

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Pictures of some children at the beginning and the end of treatment.

The importance of such modified and with hemp seed edestin supplemented medical nutrition will be even more obvious, when we realize, that it was the only substantive base of the whole treatment. During this medical nutrition, we have supplemented the diet with EDEZYM, and not used other medication or medical treatment. ln 1932, other effective medications against tuberculosis were not even available.
The other 10 cases represent a looser group of children and teenagers who were treated during the second world war - during the occupation. Only one case took place earlier, in 1933, and this girl (11 year old Maria Plecita) was included to this group as, with exception of the time the treatment took place, all the other factors (pathology, therapy) were the same as for the remaining 9 children in the group.
During this period the sanitarium was fully occupied by mature patients, only five years old Ludek Ledecky undertook the treatment together with his father, suffering with tuberculosis as well. Others were treated at home, under our ambulant supervision. Even this group does not represent specific selection, it included all children we have ambulantly treated. They were considered altogether exceptional.
The level of the nation's nutrition during this period was not good and the children under the home regimen were missing many things, which the sanitarium had in abundance for the children in the first group, in 1938. There was no cream. The cottage cheese was also in short supply and when the parents of the small patients were able to acquire it, the quality was low, as it was hard and coagulated. There was a shortage of butter and high quality fats in general. Similarly, quality meat and sometimes even eggs, sugar and other important food ingredients were not available. Such nutrition was inadequate even for healthy people but even more so for the sick ones. This hard time, however, left our patient two things, which, in addition to cottage cheese, were perhaps the most important: oat flakes and EDEZYM. Consequently, we have been able, during this difficult period and with half way correct home diet, to achieve with this second group of children convincing nutritional and treatment results, equal to the ones achieved in 1938.
These cases. which were part of the second group, took place when the children were not even protected by "calmetisation" or could have been saved by chemotherapy, or by antibiotics. It is obvious as well, that at that time, we didn't have at our disposal detailed diagnostic analysis of individual cases, which would satisfy today's requirements of phthisiology. In particular, we did not have the tomographic data and so we have only estimated, using X-ray pictures, where the atelectasc ends and the inflammation changes begin, when and to what extent we can demonstrate break up and where the dissemination took place. Nevertheless, even this norrnal skiagram brings sufficiently convincing evidence, that to all children in this group, the treatment brought about a significant turn over in the disease, which was, up to this point, considered "progressive". This means that it brought about a regression of the pathological changes in glands and lungs and, in the majority, also a distinct "restitution and integrum". If we add to it that paralicly with the positive development of the lung finding. We have seen in all children, right from the beginning, a similarly positive change in the total health status, which had, before the treatment started, deteriorated progressively. It was clear that to bring about full curative and nutritional effects, even the little which remained available from our medical nutrition during this war period (oat meal, hemp seed, a little cheese, a few yolks, and protection ofthe liver) was sufficient and that in this "little" is the substance of the effective factor.

Posted Image
X-rays of certain children at the beginning and the end of treatment.
Emil Langer, Ružena Hurková, Blanka Cistá

In the following table, we have summarized the curative effects. which were achieved by the treatment of the second group of ten ambulantly treated children. The summary deals with the effects of lung findings and the total nutritional state and development:

X-ray No. Age (years) Name Characteristics of the disease at the beginning of the treatment Duration in weeks Final results of the treatment Weight changes in kg 33, 34
35, 36
14 Skopová Libuse
- first treatment 10.VII.1944:
Lymphadenitis hilosa, right-sided Sluk triangle. Reduction of weight -6 kg, subfebr. febr., menopause 18 17.XI.1944:
Normalisation of the lung finding as well as the overall status. Menses is regular again. +9 kg The same - second treatment 26.XII.1944:
Pleuritis exsudat. dx., reduction in weight -6 kg, febr. temp. 5 30.I.1945:
Normalisation of the Sluk triangle, of the lung finding and of the overall status. +8 kg 37, 38
39, 40
5 Langer Emil
- first treatment 24.VI.1941:
Two-sided tumor of the glands, right-sided Sluk triangle 4 24.VII.1941:
Disappearance of the Sluk triangle, partial regression of the glands +2 kg The same - second treatment 18.I.1942:
Two-sided Sluk triangle, weight loss -2 kg 38 10.X.1942:
Disappearance of the Sluk triangle, regression of the glands +4,5 kg 41, 42 8 Hurková Ružena 23.IV.1946:
Physically retarded since early age, dislike for food, Pirquet ++. Soft deposit on the left lower lobe of the lungs. 28 11.XI.1946:
Elimination of the lung finding, she grew and achieved normal development. +6 kg 43, 44 11 Polácek Vítezslav 11.VI.1944:
The same lung finding as in the previous case 21 9.XI.1944:
Elimination of the lung finding. +5 kg 45, 46 5 Ledecký Ludek 6.VI.1946:
The same lung finding, but on the right side. Large hard lymphomas on the neck, under the jaw. Pirq. ++ 21 The only case from this group treated in the Sanatorium. Liquidation of the lung finding and glands. +4 kg 47, 48 20 Balej Antonín 1.III.1943:
Lack of apetite, night sweating, weight loss-3 kg FW 44-72. Soft deposits on the left side, changes with suspected dispers. 27 3.IX.1943:
Healing of the lung findings, disappearance of the signs, restitution of the overall status. +7 kg 49, 50 19 Dupáková Jarmila 18.VII.1943:
Finding as in previous case ,with distinct parahiles dispersion, FW: 52-90, BK directly positive. 22 18.XII.1943:
Healing of lung findings, disappearance of the signs, restitution of the overall status. +4 kg 51, 52, 53 6 Cistá Blanka 6.V.1944:
Coughing for a few weeks, poor food intake, temperature. tumor of hil. glands. A soft deposition of the right hil is spreading to the central and lower fields. 18 6.IX.1944:
Involution and calcification of the glands, resorption of the deposition changes, restitution of the overall status. +5,5 kg 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 10 Vospálek Václav Since early age sickly, just returned from the hospital. Cachexia.
Pleuritis exsud. sin. After reabsorption of exsud. a dispersion in size of a walnut appeared above the diaphragm. BK dir. ++ 59 30.VIII.1941:
Healing of lung findings, considerable improvement of the overall status. After few years of misery he managed to finish school and received trade. +5 kg 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 11 Plecitá Marie 30.III.1933:
Dispositional changes in both lower lobes of lungs. Pleuritis diaphr., parietal cachexy, Pirquet ++ 12 22.VI.1933:
Liquidation of lung findings, restitution of the overall status. +6 kg


On a group of twenty-six tuberculosis stricken children and teenagers, presented in two groups in "as the herd is running" fashion (this means without any selection), we have been able to achieve positive results. From the point of treatment, nutrition, or physical development, medical nutrition, supplemented with the hemp seed edestin, had an unambiguously favorable effect.
The attached documentation, generated ten to twenty years of age, will not meet today's requirements of the phthisiology. It leaves in some cases doubts if the described type of pathological change or group of changes was or was not of the specific type. There is, however. not a slightest doubt about the following:
1. All children were included into our treatment program in the state of progressive worsening of total health status and also in the majority of cases with documented lung disease;
2. In all participants this treatment immediately caused a turn over in the sense of regression of changes caused by the disease and improvement of the overall health status;
3. In all cases, without any other medication or treatment procedures, within a usually short time, a healing of the lung or glands disease was accomplished. And, during the same short period of time, with only three meals a day, not excessively rich, a far-reaching restitution of the nutritional status and physical development was noticed.
Out of these facts it is obvious that this treatment of medical nutrition proved to be good and very effective. It was happening in a time period when similarly effective means of treatment were not available. In this sense, the treatment was saving the lives of children threatened by tuberculosis (as well as mature people) and was in a position to save many more if it only received the deserved attention.
In the first group of 16 children belonging to the poor people of the Prague suburb, somebody may have commented,that the turn over in their health status was influenced by removing these children from unhealthy living conditions and housing them in a hygienic and rather "affluent environment". It could not be denied that this was an important factor, which had a positive influence, it has an effect during each transfer of a sick child into a hospital, however, we don't see in every case such a change. We do not see such a straight forward means. As well, this objection loses it merit when we compare the first group of children with the second group which, with only one exception, did not changed their environment, but were treated at home. Moreover, this relatively "affluent environment" was often restricted by the miserable economic condition during the war. Despite that, in such unfavorable conditions, we witness the same convincing and unambiguous results, the same overall improvement.
It is exactly this comparison of the two groups of children which leads us to the discovery of the factors which were effective in the treatment of both groups. For certainly, it was not the effect of the changed environment and "comparative affluence" which we provided for the children in the first group, but which was not available for the children in the second group. It must have been the parts of the treatment which were available to both groups. From the effective substances we should name: porridge from the oat flakes, EDEZYM from the hemp seeds, and cottage cheese. Further, we should add the protection of the liver, which means the exclusion of meals which are overburdening the liver and the exclusion of frequent presentations of meals and drinks.
If we take the preservation of liver as a logical part of the patient's hygiene, we can condense the whole topic to three factors: oatmeal porridge, EDEZYM and cottage cheese. It is not to say that raw or "soft" egg yolk, nuts, raw vegetables and fruits and other, previously discussed things are not important. But the most important, as we can conclude from our analysis, are the three: oats, hemp seed and cottage cheese. And, we repeat, that all three must be prepared in such a way that the proteins will be colloid, under-naturalized and in a non-coagulated state. All other effective substances of the medical nutrition could be, more or less, missed by the patient, as they were missed by the children in the second group, without endangering the results of the medical nutrition. If, however, one of the three basic pillars of the treatment is missing, or is damaged (denaturalized) by the improper processing, the results of the treatment are half as effective or less effective.
Today, when we don't have EDEZYM and the cottage cheese is sometimes of poor quality, we have Streptomycin, PAS, and INH, in addition to surgical methods. Let's be careful, however! A conscientious doctor always considers the strong points and weaknesses of such medications and while treating the mature patients, or even more, while treating the children, he uses them only in cases where they are needed and in doses which are tolerable. If he understands the importance of liver protection, he is twice as careful, particularly when dealing with para-aminosalicylic acid. And makes sure "that he will not use all his ammunition before the main battle starts". This means he avoids the frivolous use of full doses of antibiotics and bacteriostatical drugs, so that in case of exacerbation or recidivity, he will not be without an effective weapon. All such unavoidable considerations must reinforce our conviction, that a means which is relatively effective and at the same time absolutely harmless when used for an extended and unlimited period, as is our medical nutrition, should not be overlooked even today, in a time of antibiotics.
We, in Jince, even today subject our patients, who are mature and chronic, to the appropriate preparation before we will use antibiotics or tuberculostatics. Those who need it, will be educated in the proper order in eating and drinking. Smokers are retrained into non-smokers and all are included into a regimen of liver protection. Usually, we achieve, particularly in disciplined patients, a nice improvement, without medication. Only in cases when the treatment progress is slow, do we, after careful consideration, use antibiotics and bacteriostatics. Patients will, however, always be supported by medical nutrition. This medical nutrition is an essential part of our patient's education while they are being treated at home.


The use of hemp seed in the therapy of tuberculosis is based on our experience of the last thirty years, gained at Jince in the area of medical nutrition. In the proper function of the liver we have always seen a precondition for perfect assimilation of nutrients. For this reason we have emphasized the rules and limitations which we know today as the foundation of liver diet. We consider them to a certain point as a universal base of every medical diet. Medical nutrition during tuberculosis must stress, in addition to vitamins B1, C and A, primarily proteins and among them namely those which nature destined to serve as building material for the formation of organisms. Such protein sources, for instance, include cottage cheese, egg yolk. reserve proteins in cereals, nuts and other fruits. It is of great importance. that such proteins are processed without denaturalization. Professionally prepared cottage cheese is a precious dietetic component, but hard and coagulated is dietetically worthless. Similarly, raw egg yolk is a good, but boiled to hard state is not. A daily does of only 10 to 20 grams of oats, in the form of professionally prepared porridge will soon prove its medicinal properties, while twenty times higher doses of cereals denaturalized by baking or cooking in water have a dietetically rather indifferent affect. The ground hemp seed, extracted with milk, heated to a temperature between 60 to 80 degrees C will have, even in such small doses, an important healing effect. We are convinced that a child with tuberculosis is the best testing ground for medical nutrition based on hemp seed.
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#8 mediuse


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Posted 16 June 2010 - 01:33 AM

StormCrow...Iwanna torrent of your BRAIN!... muA

#9 DEBhasgrn


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Posted 16 June 2010 - 05:06 AM

I haven't read it all yet but, this is amazing,, I worked in hospitals and a great fear was contacting mrsa, I was one of the lucky ones who did not,, but many many more did and are still,, Thank you for this research,,,
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#10 tafkam2


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Posted 16 June 2010 - 11:39 AM

I'm just blown away by this research... Storm Crow, I appreciate so much all the time, energy and resources you have devoted to MMJ research and education. Thank you for sharing your knowledge so freely. Best wishes, tafkam
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#11 Storm Crow

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Posted 16 June 2010 - 01:00 PM


They knew this in 1955!

How many lives have we lost to MRSA over the years? Every one of them is due to the war on cannabis! Just thousands more in collateral damage from this war the government wages on its people!

And look at the kids in the TB section! In the 50s, TB was still a killer.

You wonder where I get the energy to fight for legalization? I read the studies and get mad! :banghead: This prohibition insanity MUST STOP! Help me get this healing herb LEGAL! Share the studies! fart.gif Stop the deaths!

EDUCATE! :study:

Granny yay.gif
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#12 MySong4Freedom


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Posted 16 June 2010 - 01:34 PM

I want to thank you for this post. I am a very phyically ill person, and like so many other people with cancers and other illness's...we thank God for the right to be a medical patient, and the legal right to use. My prayer is for the widespread education and responsiable use of cannibus. To all my friends out there thank you for your support. :banghead:
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